Permafrost Researcher from Yukon College Joins International Project on Herschel Island
Photo cred: nunataryuk.org The team starting their field work. From left to right: Andreas Richter, Peter Charlie, George Tanski, Louis-Philippe Roy, Jöelle Voglimacci-Stéphanopoli and Vincent Sasseville
Louis-Philippe Roy stands at the edge of the Arctic Ocean on the northernmost edge of Yukon, Canada. The untrained eye may see only an expanse of ice and snow, broken by a few muskoxen. Yet, Louis-Philippe knows the ground below him is unstable—thawing at an alarming rate. Where he stands, the coastline of Qikiqtaruk or Herschel Island, is falling into the sea. Permafrost, the frozen ground that has served as the island’s foundation for millennia is thawing, taking cultural history with it.
For over 800 years, Qikiqtaruk has been the location of a traditional subsistence life for the Inuvialuit. Nearby sites have evidence of human presence dating back almost 9,000 years. After European contact in 1826, Qikiqtaruk became a bustling community of around 1,500 through the 1890s and 1900s. A hub in the global whaling industry until whaling suddenly ceased to be profitable in 1908.
Today, there are no year-round residents living on Qikiqtaruk, but it is protected by the Yukon Government as a Yukon Territorial Park. Wooden houses, a community hall, and whaling company buildings from that brief era still stand today. Those in the best condition have been renovated to house the handful of tourists and researchers, like Louis Philippe, who visit throughout the year.
Roy is part of a researcher expedition, organized by Nunataryuk, a five-year project to determine the impacts of thawing coastal and subsea permafrost on global climate and develop targeted and co-designed plans for the coastal Arctic communities to combat and prepare for climate change.
Roy is here to assist an international research team as they spend several weeks gathering soil, flora, fauna and permafrost core samples in this vulnerable coastal ecosystem. Everything they will need to do this must be shipped in and out. More than half a tonne in equipment and field gear was shipped a month prior to the team’s arrival and travelled all the way from Potsdam, Germany over the Atlantic Ocean up the Dempster Highway, Yukon to Inuvik, Northwest Territories (NWT).
George Tanski from the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Andreas Richter from the University of Vienna, Juliane Wolter, Hugues Lantuit and Jan Kahl from the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, and Jöelle Voglimacci-Stéphanopoli and Vincent Sasseville from the Université de Sherbrooke each bring a diverse set of research agendas and field methods to the table to accomplish their task.
As a permafrost researcher with Northern Climate ExChange at Yukon College, Roy’s experience organizing large and complex field research groups, planning for cold climate work, permafrost drilling and core sampling proves invaluable for the Nunataryuk team.
“Doing research in such remote places like Qikiqtaruk and the rest of the north requires massive logistical planning. I have seen it all and am rarely surprised by setbacks anymore. I have had to fix broken down equipment in -30C, been delayed weeks due weather and flying conditions, and had near misses with wildlife encounters. Being a northern researcher, means you must be prepared for anything. Conditions and plans change all the time, one must be adaptable and prepared, this trip was no exception” said Roy.
The thirty-year-old calls Whitehorse home, but he has conducted field work in Alaska, Nunavut, Northwest Territories and Yukon. This was his first trip to Herschel Island.
“We can learn a lot about past climate conditions studying our frozen ground, and I was looking forward to studying Herschel Island. Permafrost ground temperature it is a good indicator of how climate is changing in different areas. I’ve worked in Yukon since 2012 and have already seen a lot of changes to the landscape and environment. There are sites we have been visiting for five to six years now and we can see, even in this short period, a lot of changes related to permafrost degradation,” said Roy.
Despite temperatures hovering around -10C (14F) through the day, of -20 (-4F) with the windchill, the increased Arctic spring daylight enables the team to work well into the evening. When not busy drilling boreholes and doing preliminary analysis of samples, they explore the landscape and hang out with park rangers in the shared, no-frills shack.
"It was fantastic to benefit from the experience of Yukon College. We achieved much more than we would have without the presence of Louis-Philippe. We can now start to understand how permafrost changes from the south to the northern tip of the Yukon. This is unique and very promising for the future,” said Dr. Hugues Lantuit, Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI).
The team also benefits from the experience of wildlife monitor, Peter Archie from Aklavik, NWT. Archie brings a wealth of traditional knowledge, making the job of a researcher a lot easier, providing support leading up to and during a trip. He knows the area and resident wildlife well and stands watch for potential encounters—very beneficial when the group was charged by a lone wolverine.
“Qikiqtaruk is a truly unique place. It is far away from civilization, and at the edge of the world in some ways but concentrates a wealth of Inuvialuit and recent cultural history. It is a privilege to stay there and contemplate these two dimensions as we work on permafrost,” said Dr. George Tanski, Faculty of Science, Earth and Climate, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Permafrost thaw is expected to impact human health through the release of contaminants and infections, through impacts on food and water security of Arctic coastal settlements inducing health and socio- economic repercussions. The cores and samples collected on Qikiqtaruk will now undergo thorough analysis. The team hopes to quantify thawing permafrost and its impact on storage and vulnerability of organic matter and contaminants on land along with determining the vulnerability of existing infrastructure.
As it becomes Yukon University in May 2020, Canada’s first university north of 60, Yukon College looks forward to continuing to work, collaborate and partner with other international organizations and institutions to understand the impacts of climate change on the global environment, and how we can adapt.
FIND OUT MORE
About Northern Climate Exchange at Yukon College:
Established in 2000, Yukon College’s Northern Climate ExChange partners with communities, industry, First Nations, academics and government leaders to explore and respond to climate change impacts on northern communities and their infrastructure. Yukon College conducts leading-edge permafrost research focused on supporting infrastructure maintenance and construction for Arctic development and the well-being of communities who live on the land, while making high-level scientific contributions to permafrost science and engineering.
Find out more about Yukon College’s permafrost research:
Nunataryuk is a project made up of 26 international partners, predominately post-secondary institutions, including Université Laval in Canada and coordinated by Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Potsdam Germany. Nunataryuk is committed to determining the impacts of thawing coastal and subsea permafrost on the global climate and will be developing targeted and co-designed adaptation and mitigation strategies for the Arctic coastal population.
Find out more about Nunataryuk
Find out more about Herschel Island